The following methods have been tried to maintain the mercury vapor pressure at optimal level by artificially creating cold zones: Application of heat shields on the ends of the lamp to create cold zones of the electrodes. To this end, the back electrode at some distance from them, are placed screens, such as nickel-tin, well reflecting the radiation electrode and the discharge. Optimum distances are set by experience, since the calculations are complex and contain many assumptions. The disadvantage of this design are unpleasant visual sensation of dark all lights, the complexity of construction and growth of terminal losses. Making tubes with small protruding spikes that are less heat discharge due to which have a lower temperature. The use of heaters of various designs, fixed on the cooled surface area and increase the heat lamp.
The heat sinks complicates the installation of lamps. Increase heat lamp by blowing with fans. This method is useful only in the presence of air-conditioning systems. Cooling with thermoelectric current is automatically refrigerators. This method is not used because of the high cost of such refrigerators.
Currently, artificial cold spots found practical application in compact fluorescent lamps. In other cases, amalgam. The choice of filling gas and its pressure. Investigation of the problem shows that in terms of improving the initial light output of an advantage of a gas depends on the specific power. At low power when the secondary processes are small, light output is proportional to power. With increasing power, the role of secondary processes (quenching and stepwise excitation) and heat loss, growth flux is slowed down, gradually approaching a definite limit. The heavier the filling gas, the steeper the rise of the curve at first, but the earlier the saturation and at a lower value of luminous flux. Level saturation is determined mainly by the electron temperature. Therefore, it is the higher and occurs at temperatures higher power, the lighter gas.